My Plantcentric Journey

Posts tagged ‘inflammation’

New Report: Thousands of Pancreatic Cancers in the U.S. Can Be Prevented

www.aicr.org » Cancer Research Update

AICR logo

“There is still clear and convincing evidence that diets high in a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains and beans lower risk for several cancers, including those of the colorectum, esophagus, stomach and more,” said AICR’s Alice Bender, MS, RD.

Pancreas In Situ Xray Image

 

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly forms of cancer. Usually diagnosed in advanced stages, it claims the lives of nine out of ten patients within five years’ time. Now a report released today from the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) and the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) finds clear and convincing evidence that many cases of pancreatic cancer can be prevented.

“The latest report from the AICR/WCRF Continuous Update Project, one of the largest cancer prevention research projects in the world, shows that being overweight and obese increases the risk of developing pancreatic cancer,” said Continuous Update Project (CUP) Panel Member Elisa Bandera, MD, PhD, of the Cancer Institute of New Jersey.

AICR/WCRF estimates that being lean can prevent 19 percent of pancreatic cancer cases that occur in the United States every year – or roughly one out of every five. That’s equivalent to 23 cases a day, and approximately 8,300 cases every year, that never have to happen, in the U.S. alone. (See the Cancer Preventability Chart)

In comparison, tobacco use, the number one risk factor for pancreatic cancer, is responsible for 1 out of every 4 cases of the disease, according to the American Cancer Society.

For the latest report on pancreatic cancer, the CUP evaluated an additional 79 recent papers relating to pancreatic cancer, diet and lifestyle. This was added to the 129 research papers already included for the AICR/WCRF 2007 second expert report.

“With the recent news that pancreatic cancer rates are on the rise, this report should be seen as a wake-up call,” Bandera said. “It’s still another example of the severe toll the obesity epidemic is taking on our health.”

Fat and Pancreatic Cancer: What’s the Link?

In addition to pancreatic cancer, carrying excess body fat has been shown to increase risk for cancers of the breast (postmenopausal), colon, esophagus, kidney, endometrium and gall bladder, along with other chronic diseases such as 2 diabetes and heart disease.

The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach that produces digestive juices as well as insulin and other hormones. Research continues to document several reasons why carrying excess fat increases risk for pancreatic cancer.

Fat tissue produces cytokines (proteins) that cause inflammation, which link to changes that promote cancer in healthy cells. Being overweight and obese also increases blood levels of insulin and related hormones that can encourage the growth of cancer.

The Latest: Folate Link Downgraded

Research on cancer prevention is always evolving, which is why AICR/WCRF created the CUP, a living database of the global cancer research that is investigating links between lifestyle and cancer risk. As research is added to the database, the CUP panel periodically re-evaluates the strength of various links to ensure that AICR’s advice always reflects the state-of-the-science.
The AICR/WCRF CUP Pancreatic Cancer 2012 report also finds that it is no longer clear that foods containing folate protect against pancreatic cancer. This represents a downgrading of the judgment from the AICR/WCRF second expert report, which concluded in 2007 that there was evidence for a probable link between foods containing folate and lower risk for pancreatic cancer.

Foods containing folate include dark leafy greens, beans and peanuts.

But experts at AICR point out that this downgrade does not change the organization’s take-home message that plant-based diets are cancer-protective. “There is still clear and convincing evidence that diets high in a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains and beans lower risk for several cancers, including those of the colorectum, esophagus, stomach and more,” said AICR’s Alice Bender, MS, RD.

The new report also confirms the findings that coffee does not link to pancreatic cancer risk.

The Bottom Line

Maintaining a healthy weight is one of the most important things you can do to prevent this deadly disease. Avoiding tobacco use is another. If you smoke, stop now. If you don’t, never start.

Pancreas Matrix 2012

http://www.aicr.org/cancer-research-update/2012_10_04/cru-report-thousands.html

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Sources of Iron and Omega 3 Fatty Acids for Vegans Are Plentiful

LORI

One of our Twitter friends recently asked the following question:

To @thisdishisveg if you could also include some great ideas for iron and omega 3? I eat fish because when i was full veg. i’d get dizzy a lot.

Great question!

Consuming adequate amounts of iron and omega 3 fatty acids are both very important factors in maintaining optimum health. Luckily, they are both abundant in many plant foods.

Iron is a nutrient that should be paid some attention when transitioning to a plant diet based diet. It is an essential nutrient, as it assists our blood in carrying oxygen via hemoglobin. This is why a lack of iron can certainly make you feel tired or dizzy! There are 2 kinds of iron: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is better absorbed by the body, but it is found only in animal products, and makes up about 40% of their iron content. Non-heme, though absorbed less readily, is abundant in all plant food sources. This absorption issue is why the iron requirement is higher for vegans than for meat eaters. The good news is that a well balanced vegan diet will provide you ample intake, and absorption, of iron.

Leafy greens are one of the best sources of iron. Prime sources are kale, parsley, collard greens, mustard greens, and turnip greens. Other vegetables high in iron are asparagus, broccoli, cabbage, watercress, and brussel sprouts. Although they are high in iron content, spinach and chard are NOT good sources of iron because they contain oxalic acid. Oxalic acid is a substance that binds with iron and inhibits its absorption. However, it’s okay to eat these greens in moderation, as long as you are not relying on them as your iron source.

Some iron rich fruits are mulberries, cherries, apricots, figs, raisins, and dates. Seeds can also be a very high source of iron, the most iron rich being pumpkin seeds. Other seeds to include in your diet are sesame seeds and sunflower seeds. Grains to look for are quinoa and millet. Legumes such as black-eyed peas, lentils, kidney beans, lima beans, and chickpeas are also effective sources. And don’t forget about almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pine nuts and pistachios. Tofu and soy are also good sources, and many dairy free milks are often fortified with iron. Blackstrap molasses is a very rich source as well.

When considering iron, it’s important to understand that vitamin C helps your body absorb iron from food. This is especially noteworthy when eating foods that contain non-heme iron. Fortunately, many vegetables that are high in iron are also high in vitamin C, such as broccoli and bok choy. Another way to increase your iron absorption is through conscious food choices and food combining. Eating beans with tomatoes, for example, will increase your iron uptake due to the high Vitamin C in tomatoes. Hummus is an excellent choice because it combines iron rich chickpeas with the high vitamin C content of lemons! Other foods high in vitamin C are potatoes, kale, brussels sprouts, peppers and many fruits.

You should take caution to avoid consuming tea, coffee and/or calcium supplements during an iron rich meal. Both calcium and tannins (tannins are found in tea and coffee) reduce iron absorption. They should be ingested at least a few hours before or after an iron rich meal. With all the foods mentioned, it is best to eat them in their RAW form, or as close to raw as possible, in order to achieve maximum benefit.

Omega 3 fatty acids are very important for inflammation control. Our bodies need a balance of omega 3 to omega 6 fatty acids. Unfortunately, many of us consume foods that are high in omega 6, and not enough omega 3, leading to inflammation. As for omega 3 plant food sources, I have a personal favorite… chi-chi-CHIA! Who remembers those old commercials where you sprinkle the seeds on your Chia Pet and it grows into a fun little plant?! Those silly little seeds are actually nutritional powerhouses! In addition to being a potent source of omega 3s, chia seeds are high in calcium, protein, fiber, and act as blood sugar stabilizers by slowing down the conversion of carbohydrates into sugars. Chia seeds are hydrophilic (water loving) and will quickly absorb liquid if they are immersed in it. An easy way to to incorporate these little seeds into your diet is to simply add them to your smoothies, or stir them into your oatmeal. For a creative way to eat them, try making a ‘pudding’ by letting about a tablespoon of chia seeds sit in a cup coconut milk. Chill this mixture for about 15 minutes, and you will have a tapioca-like pudding that is delicious!

Other excellent sources of omega 3s are flax oil, walnuts, hemp seeds, and soybeans. I like to add hemp seeds to my smoothies, as they give it a sweet flavor. Hemp seeds also taste great sprinkled on steamed broccoli, and flax oil can be drizzled over any veggies, warm or cold, for an omega 3 boost. Just be sure not to heat your flax oil as this will denature it.

Trying to break down the nutritional contents of foods can be exhausting, but it is important to have a good understanding if you are new to (or experimenting with) a plant based diet, so that you can be certain you are obtaining adequate nutrition. I encourage anyone making changes in their diet to do so carefully, and under the supervision of a professional if further education is needed. However, once you learn the ropes you will see that the key to a healthy, nutrient rich diet is simply eating a wide variety of whole foods! It’s not complicated… in fact, it’s as easy as pie (vegan pie, that is)!

Lori Zito | @LoriZito
Lori is an animal-loving, life-loving vegan who is passionate about spreading the message of better health through a vegan diet. She works as a certified holistic health and nutrition coach, a yoga instructor, and a physical therapist. Learn more at her website Live In The Balance and follow her on Facebook.

Photo Credit: cc: flickr.com/photos/83096974@N00

http://www.thisdishisvegetarian.com/2010/08/sources-of-iron-and-omega-3-fatty-acids.html

Why Not Just Take a Pill and Eat What You Want?

diabetesI’ve heard this asked many times.  Well, two new studies just came out in  the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).  Read on:

Pharmageddon: America’s Top Selling Drug Cause Diabetes

From:  http://drhyman.com/blog/conditions/pharmageddon-americas-top-selling-drug-cause-diabetes/

by 

IF ALL DOCTORS followed the latest cholesterol treatment guidelines, and all their patients took their prescribed statin medication, there would be 3.5 million more diabetics in America.  But wait! There is another pill (injection actually) that has been shown to reduce the risk of diabetes. And it’s only about $50,000 per year per patient.  Let’s see 3.5 million times $50,000. What does that bring us to?

Pharmageddon!

We are stuck in an absurd cultural habit of thinking that medication will save us from lifestyle and social diseases.

Two separate studies in today’s issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) underscore that we have come to the end of an era of being saved by medication.  Antibiotics and vaccines were a huge advance in medicine in the 20thcentury.  But the single pill for the single ill just doesn’t work for 21st century chronic diseases like heart disease and diabetes.

Statins cause Diabetes

The latest cholesterol guidelines (ATP III) increased the number of Americans who should take statin therapy from 13 to 40 million.  Those additional 27 million are ones without heart disease, but who have high cholesterol.  This type of treatment is called primary prevention.  I have extensively reviewed the research on using statins to prevent heart attacks in people who never had them.  The data is weak and shows no benefit, except the Jupiter trial, which ONLY showed benefit if patients also had inflammation (high C-reactive protein), not just high cholesterol or LDL.   If you just had an elevated cholesterol, statins didn’t help.

I have previously written about research that showed that statins increase the risk of diabetes. This latest study examined five major clinical trials on statins including 32,752 non-diabetics over 4.9 years.  During the study period 2,749 patients (or 8.4 percent) developed diabetes.  Those on the highest doses of statins (which are increasingly prescribed by physicians) were at the highest risk of developing diabetes.

While there was a slight overall reduction in risk of heart attacks in the patients treated with statins, the authors found that you have to treat 155 people for one year to prevent just one heart attack or death. If a doctor had to prescribe antibiotics to 155 people to cure just one patient of pneumonia we would think that antibiotics weren’t very good medication.  But that is exactly the “number needed to treat” to prevent just one cardiac event.  On top of that for every 498 people treated, one more person would become diabetic.  If these drugs were not the top selling drugs in history we might accept a small risk, but if we treated everyone who “needed” them, we would have over 3.5 million more diabetics in America.

Using statins may be an acceptable risk if there was no other treatment for heart disease.  And we spend over $100 billon a year on angioplasties (which don’t benefit 95% of people receiving them), and cardiac bypasses (which reduce the risk of death in only 3% of people who receive them), while ignoring that heart disease is a lifestyle and social disease that requireslifestyle medicine and a social cure which would prevent over 90% of all heart disease.

Immune Suppressing Medication Prevents Diabetes

In another study of nearly 14,000 patients, published in today’s issue of JAMA, researchers from Harvard found that those treated with powerful immune suppressing medications (TNF alpha blockers like Remicade or Enbrel), reduced their risk of getting diabetes.

Sounds great. We have an explosion of diabetes.  By 2020 one in two Americans will either have pre-diabetes or diabetes.  The authors said “there is evidence suggesting a possible role for … immunosuppression in diabetes prevention”. But the side effects of these drugs are overwhelming infection, increased cancer risk and death.  And they cost about $50,000 per year per patient. Were the authors serious about using these drugs for diabetes, another lifestyle and social disease?

Yes diabetes is an inflammatory disease. And yes, reducing inflammation can prevent and even reverse diabetes.  But it won’t be by taking aspirin, Advil, or some high-powered immune suppressing, toxic, expensive medication.  The major cause of inflammation is our processed, high sugar, low fiber, fast food, junk food, calorie-dense, nutrient poor industrial diet and our couch potato lifestyle.  A plant based, whole foods, real food diet without sugar and flour in pharmacologic doses along with anti-inflammatory omega 3 fats and a good dose of exercise can dramatically reduce the risk of and even reverse heart disease and diabetes. And they cost a lot less.

Last week a study in JAMA found that the risk of diabetes, heart attacks and death increased significantly with more than 2 hours of television watching per day.  The average American spends seven to nine hours in front a screen every day.  We have a social problem, a host of chronic diseases driven by a food industry and screen dominated culture and the breakdown of communities.  Cooking real food takes a bit more time, but people spend more time watching cooking shows on television that actually cooking.

The answer to our exploding health care costs and burgeoning chronic disease is not going to be found at the bottom of a pill bottle, but at the end of our forks and the soles of our shoes.  Please save us from Pharmageddon.

Avatar of Dr Mark Hyman

About Dr Mark Hyman

MARK HYMAN, MD is dedicated to identifying and addressing the root causes of chronic illnessthrough a groundbreaking whole-systems medicine approach called Functional Medicine. He is a family physician, a five-time New York Times bestselling author, and an international leader in his field. Through his private practice, education efforts, writing, research, and advocacy, he empowers others to stop managing symptoms and start treating the underlying causes of illness, thereby tackling our chronic-disease epidemic. More about Dr. Hyman .

Foods That Fight Pain

 

Meals That Heal Inflammation

Fight inflammation and eliminate pain with these simple superfood recipes.

 

Read more: http://www.prevention.com/food/food-remedies/foods-fight-pain?cm_mmc=Community-_-996188-_-07312012-_-8-Food-Cures-Pain-link#ixzz22W5oDCtw

Is Belly Fat the Worst Kind of Fat?

by Emily Milam

While excess belly fat may allow for a more impressive splash when flopping into the pool, it also packs some not so stellar abilities, like leading to higher cholesterol levels and increased risks for cardiovascular disease[1][2]. What’s more, belly fat — also known as visceral fat, abdominal fat, or central adiposity — can lead to type 2 diabetes, a disease that causes blood sugar levels to rise dangerously high[3]. The good news? Some types of midsection weight are less worrisome than others.

Tubby Tummies — Why It Matters

Belly

Photo by Jess Ivy

So why aren’t jelly bellies and thunder thighs equally bad? Of course, excess fat anywhereon the body can contribute to cardiovascular disease and diabetes, but not all fat is created equal: Geography matters[4].

Abdominal fat is stored in two different ways. First, there is subcutaneous fat (the pinchable stuff!), which sits between the skin and the abdominal wall. This fat is more of a holding tank for extra calories, and is less of a health threat since it does not directly surround organs and the blood vessels that keep them healthy[5]Visceral fat, however, sits deeper in the stomach and blankets the abdominal organs[6]. Now, everyone has some amount of visceral fat, but concerns surface when this inner fat exceeds normal levels. In some cases, the fat can invade the organs themselves (a common occurrence in the liver)[7]The organ-swaddling visceral fat negatively affects organ function and integrity by increasing inflammation, clogging blood supplies (which prevents nutrient and oxygen delivery to organs), and eventually causing insulin resistance. Insulin resistance, a pre-cursor to diabetes, is a condition by which the body’s muscle, fat, and liver no longer respond properly to circulating insulin supplies[8]. This means that insulin — a hormone made in the pancreas that tells glucose to enter the body’s cells to fulfill their energy needs — can’t do its job. The result? The body’s cells starve while the excess glucose accumulates in the blood, ultimately damaging organs and vessels throughout the body. What’s more, visceral fat cells also produces hormones that regulate weight and appetite, sometimes leading to further weight gain or increased feelings of hunger[9].

Getting Waisted — The Answer/Debate

They say America is a melting pot, but let’s think of it as a fruit basket. Different body shapes are associated with each gender and type of fat[10]Pear-shaped women have more padding around the butt and thighs (hence, apple bottom jeans — not be confused with apple shape!). These areas harbor mostly subcutaneous fat. Apple-shaped men and women, or those with fat around the middle, have more visceral fat (the dangerous kind). Banana-shaped are relatively thin throughout, or have a more equal distribution of fat. And we can’t forget beer bellies! Beer guzzlers beware — tummies full of Budweiser also count as dangerous visceral fat[11][12].

While calculating body mass index (BMI) is a helpful tool to assess the overall health of an individual’s weight, determining a waist-to-hip ratio with a measuring tape is a better method to pinpoint belly fat[13]Calculate waist-to-hip ratio by dividing the waist’s circumference at its narrowest point (use the belly button as a guide) by the hips’ circumference at their widest points (near the top of the bony protrusions). Ratios of 0.8 and below are healthy, and those above 0.8 suggest an increased risk for heart disease and diabetes. Some studies have found waist circumference to be a better determinant and to better express the amount of belly fat present[14]. Measure waist circumference at the spot right above the hip bones right afer breathing out. Risk for developing obesity-related health problems (like cardiovascular disease) increases in women with waists larger than 35 inches and in men with a circumference large than 40 inches.

Ready to battle the bulge? Thankfully, visceral fat typically surrenders to diet and exercise. Trim the fat with the four pillars of a healthy middle: exercise, diet, sleep, and stress management. While core exercises such as the plank and crunches will firm up abs, they won’t blast the belly fat that lies underneath. Instead, try moderate or vigorous intensity aerobic activity — recent research suggests that sprinting is the best way to lose the love handles[15][16][17]. Complement aerobics with diets low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and carbohydrates (beer lovers, beware), and considerprotein-rich meals and low-fat snacks[18]. And don’t forget to manage life stressors and catch plenty of Zzzs — increased cortisol levels (the stress hormone) and lack of sleep are both tied to abdominal weight gain[19][20].

The Takeaway

Belly (aka visceral) fat can be more harmful than other types in terms of leading to bigger health issues. The good news? It also surrenders more easily to improved fitness and diet than other types!

This article was read and approved by Greatist experts Sherry Pagoto and Lisa Moskovitz

What do you think about the debate between BMI or waist circumference being the better determinant of health risks? Join the conversation in the comments section below! 

Works Cited

  1. Visceral fat positively correlates with cholesterol synthesis in dyslipidaemic patients. Lupattelli, G., Pirro, M., Mannarino, M. et al. Internal Medicine, Angiology and Atherosclerosis, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2012 Feb;42(2):164-70. []
  2. Cardiovascular disease under the influence of excess visceral fat. Despres, J. Québec Heart Institute, Québec, QC, Canada. Critical Pathways in Cardiology, 2007 Jun;6(2):51-9. []
  3. Insulin resistance and body fat distribution. Yamashita, S., Nakamura, T., Shimomura, I., et al. Second Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka University Medical School, Japan. Diabetes Care, 1996 Mar;19(3):287-91. []
  4. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments: association with metabolic risk factors in the Framingham Heart Study. Fox, C., Massaro, J., Hoffman, U., et al. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute’s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Mass, USA. Circulation,  2007 Jul 3;116(1):39-48. []
  5. Beneficial effects of subcutaneous fat transplantation on metabolism. Tran, T., Yamamoto, Y., Gesta, S. et al. Joslin Diabetes Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Cell Metabolism, 2008 May;7(5):410-20. []
  6. Metabolic obesity: the paradox between visceral and subcutaneous fat. Hamdy, O., Porramatikul, S., Al-Ozairi, E. Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Current Diabetes Review, 2006 Nov;2(4):367-73. []
  7. Obesity, Visceral Fat, and NAFLD: Querying the Role of Adipokines in the Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Mirza, M. SpR Surgery, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, UK. ISRN Gastroenterology, 2011;2011:592404. []
  8. Brown fat lipoatrophy and increased visceral adiposity through a concerted adipocytokines overexpression induces vascular insulin resistance and dysfunction. Gomez-Hernandez, A., Otero, Y., de las Heras, N., et al. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, School of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain. Endocrinology, 2012 Mar;153(3):1242-55. []
  9. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Galic, S., Oakhill, J., and Steinberg, G. St. Vincent’s Institute of Medical Research and Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 2010 Mar 25;316(2):129-39. []
  10. A weight shape index for assessing risk of disease in 44,820 women. Rimm, A., Hartz, A., and Fischer, M. Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 1988;41(5):459-65. []
  11. The association of lifetime alcohol use with measures of abdominal and general adiposity in a large-scale European cohort. Bergmann, M., Schutze, M., Steffen, A., et al. Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Nuthetal, Germany. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2011 Oct;65(10):1079-87. []
  12. Relationship of abdominal obesity with alcohol consumption at population scale. Scroder, H., Morales-Molina, J., Bermejo, S., et al. Lipids and Cardiovascular Epidemiology Research Unit, Institut Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica, Barcelona, Spain. European Journal of Nutrition, 2007 Oct;46(7):369-76. []
  13. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist:hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular risk–a review of the literature. Huxley, R., Mendis, S., Zhelezyakov, E., et al. Renal and Metabolic Division, The George Institute for International Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2010 Jan;64(1):16-22. []
  14. Waist circumference in children and adolescents correlate with metabolic syndrome and fat deposits in young adults. Spolidoro, JV, Pitrez Filho, ML, Vargas LT, et al. Medical School of the Pontifficia Universidade Catolica do RS, Moinhos de Vento Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Clinical Nutrition, 2012 Jul 28. []
  15. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of aerobic vs. resistance exercise training on visceral fat. Ismail, I., Keating, S., Baker, M., et al. Discipline of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Obesity Reviews, 2012 Jan;13(1):68-91. []
  16. Effects of aerobic vs. resistance training on visceral and liver fat stores, liver enzymes, and insulin resistance by HOMA in overweight adults from STRRIDE AT/RT. Slentz, C., Bateman, L., Willis, L., et al. Div. of Cardiology, Dept. of Medicine, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2011 Nov;301(5):E1033-9. []
  17. The effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise on body composition of overweight young males. Heydari, M., Freund, J., Boutcher, S.H. School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Journal of Obesity, 2012;2012:480467. []
  18. Relationship between bread consumption, body weight, and abdominal fat distribution: evidence from epidemiological studies. Bautista-Castano, I. and Serra-Marjem, L. Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. Nutrition Reviews, 2012 Apr;70(4):218-33. []
  19. Stress-induced cortisol response and fat distribution in women. Moyer, A., Rodin, J., Grilo, C., et al. Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. Obesity Research, 1994 May;2(3):255-62. []
  20. Obesity and metabolic syndrome: Association with chronodisruption, sleep deprivation, and melatonin suppression. Reiter, R., Tan, D., Korkmaz, A., et al. Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, UT Health Science Center , San Antonio, Texas USA. Annals of Medicine, 2011 Jun 13. []

http://greatist.com/health/belly-fat-worst-kind/?utm_source=pulsenews&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+greatist+%28Greatist+-+Health+and+Fitness+Articles%2C+News%2C+and+Tips%29

The Leaky Gut Theory of Why Animal Products Cause Inflammation NutritionFacts.org

A single meal of meats, eggs, or dairy can cause a spike of inflammation within hours that can stiffen one’s arteries. Originally this was thought to be the result of saturated animal fat causing our gut lining to leak bacterial toxins into our blood stream leading to endotoxemia.

http://nutritionfacts.org/video/the-leaky-gut-theory-of-why-animal-products-cause-inflammation/?utm_source=NutritionFacts.org&utm_campaign=f82420ea30-RSS_VIDEO_DAILY&utm_medium=email

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